All Your Yesterdays - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt ) or read book online for free. Possibilities on how creatures evolved. A book. All biosamnewbcropdic.ga Download ( MB) · English · 日本語 · Português (Brazil) · Deutsch · Русский · Français · Svenska · हिन्दी · Español · Norsk · Dansk. All Yesterdays is a book about the way we see dinosaurs and other prehistoric All Yesterdays and millions of other books are available for site site.
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artistically imaginative in its approach to fossils of the past - and those of the future. Download All Yesterdays: Unique and Speculative Views of Di pdf. My latest book, All Yesterdays, is now out (Irregular Books, ; details below). Subtitled Unique and Speculative Views of Dinosaurs and. Last year, John Conway, Memo Kosemen and myself published All Yesterdays (it also features skeletal reconstructions by the brilliant Scott.
Needless to say, this arrangement elicited a lot of hypoth- eses about the oviraptorosaurian diet from the day these animals were discovered. Initially, they were thought to be egg-eaters from the way one skeleton was discovered next to a nest of eggs, almost as if caught in the act.
Here, Alvaro Rozalen is continuing the debate by illustrat- ing Citipati, one of the largest oviraptorosaurs, in the act of crushing a crab which it has caught from a freshwater lake. The animals are using their sharp mouthparts to crack open shellfish instead of eggs. Shellfish, hard fruits, bones have all been suggested as parts of the oviraptoro- saur diet. Perhaps these strange animals ate a bit of every- thing.
This could be an artifact of preservation, or it could be a specialized adapta- tion, especially if one considers that related species such as Scansoriopteryx and Epidendrosaurus both have extremely long fingers, which may have been used in probing trees for insect larvae and other food items.
Alvero Rozalen has noticed the similarity between these mystifying anatomical features and the anatomy of a living primate, the Aye-Aye. Daubentonia madagascarensis This famous denizen of Madagascar also has long, grub-probing digits and large eyes adapted for a nocturnal life.
Inspired by the Aye-Aye, Rozalen has rejected traditional recon- structions of Epidexipteryx, which look like tiny birds with fingers and no tails bimbling about on the forest floor. He has drawn this animal as a nocturnal tree dweller with bright eyes that reflect the moonlight. Adaptations for an arboreal lifestyle can force animals to assume deceptively scary forms with large eyes, long limbs, sharp, insect- crunching teeth and cryptic body shapes.
This could have been especially true for bird-like dinosaurs with large brains, such as troodonts. Usually hailed as the smartest dinosaurs, these animals may have had complicated behaviors and elaborate social displays. Such advanced cognitive skills would have necessitated a relatively long period of infancy and learning. This stunning portrait shows two hatchling Troodons, smart and bird-like meat-eaters, in their tree burrow nest as they wait for their parents to return from a foraging trip.
Like hatchlings of certain birds today, they have a mottled, cam- ouflaging pattern of feathers. The developing remige, or flight feathers, are clearly visible on the arm of the hatch- ling which is shielding itself from the sun. When they grow, these feathers will get longer, and their arms will resemble wings.
The hatchlings are scanning their surroundings with wary, intelligent eyes, on the lookout for potential danger or the return of their parents. Science : —8. PMID Swiss artist Andrea Gassler has come up with a novel interpretation of these animals. He postulates that the long finger, understood by many artists and researchers as an adaptation to probe for grubs and insects under tree bark, was actually the support for an extensive, wing-like mem- brane.
Bats and the flying reptiles known as pterosaurs also have wings derived from similar adaptations. As one can expect, portraying a dinosaur with membra- nous protowings results in a truly bizarre beast, and this pterosaur-mimic reconstruction has to be appreciated as food for thought rather than a genuine hypothesis.
A similar idea has been proposed by the Italian palaeontolo- gist Andrea Cau and illustrated by the palaeoartist Lukas Panzarin in In , a new species of scansoriopterygid dinosaur named Yi qi2 was discovered in China, with not only extremely long fingers, but also a strange, elongated, wing-like wrist bone, and cover- ing them all, a set of membranous, bat-like wings. These surprising structures were similar to the configuration pictured here by Andrea Gassler. Retrieved In These surprising structures were similar to the configuration pictured here by Andrea Gassler.
As one can expect. Swiss artist Andrea Gassler has come up with a novel interpretation of these animals.. A similar idea has been proposed by the Italian palaeontolo- gist Andrea Cau and illustrated by the palaeoartist Lukas Panzarin in Retrieved Andrew Dutt Bones Away One of the strangest flying reptiles. Its beak could have probed into carcasses and with its jaws it could have crushed bones to obtain nutritious bone marrow.
This odd morphology was possibly used for consuming durable prey items.
Dsun- garipterus is famous for its extraordinary skull. By using this visually- appealing style. Asher Elbein Pterodactyl Mating Flight As attested by their extraordinary crests and brain casts showing enlarged optical lobes. Pterosaurs were visually- oriented creatures. Elbein has also adorned the male pterosaur with bright. In fact. It is thus highly possible that their mat- ing habits made use of visual signals as well. Does mutual sexual selec- tion explain the evolution of head crests in pterosaurs and dinosaurs?
Lethaia Seeing that the males of many modern-day animals sport colorful crests. As in birds and most reptiles. India and Afghanistan today. Soon after. Ambulocetus is usually illus- trated as a naked. About the size of a person.
The earli- est whales resembled deer-like animals with short necks and long. Bethany Vargeson has broken this tradition.
Their transformation from land-living animals to gigantic swimmers is one of the most extraordi- nary stories in the history of mammal evolution. Brian Engh The true nature of sauropod integument may never be known. Sauropods are now drawn as sleek. California- based palaeoartist Brian Engh has challenged the conven- tional wisdom of how these animals are represented.
No longer consigned to the swamps. Engh explains. With this one image of Diamantinasaurus. By picturing the large sauropods inside a cave. Engh does not suggest that these animals lived in caves. In the past. Engh successfully draws attention to the fact that in nature. Later on. This is a speculative feature never before illustrated in such animals.
Like albinism. What is less commonly known is that there was not one species Smilodon. Masnaghetti has also distinguished this work by illustrating both Miragaia and the opportunistic hypsilophodonts actually distant relatives.
Besides suggesting a plausible behavior. In Miragaia. Looking like a gigantic porcupine with dangerous spines on its flexible tail. The hypsilophodonts would not only find the larger beast useful for safety. Palaeoartist Christian Masnaghetti has thus depicted Mi- ragaia. Miragaia was certainly a tough adversary for any predator. Christian Masnaghetti Miragaia and the Opportunists In nature.
Christian Masnaghetti Symbiosis Christian Masnaghetti returns here with a more specula- tive suggestion of symbiosis between a large herbivorous dinosaur and an arachnid. Here, a gigantic spider purposefully spins a web in be- tween the horns of a Diaboloceratops, a large, horn-faced plant eating dinosaur, to feed on insects buzzing around its head. While this arrangement seems unlikely, a very similar situ- ation was observed with an impala in by the wildlife photographer Frank Solomon.
This condition is almost always fatal.
Even the basic task of walking would be immensely difficult. While this looks like a complete work of fantasy. Zupaysaurus must have been very lucky to have survived into maturity. Polyceph- aly is also known from past eras. Considering all these disadvantages. There are records of polycephalic fish.
Polycephaly is a birth defect that occurs when two embryos fail to separate properly and end up as a single fetus with two heads or two front halves of the body. There are even people with this condi- tion: Abigail and Brittany Hensel of Minnesota. All this being said. Known from scrappy remains. Discovered in the s with a reason- ably complete skeleton. It is restored here as a reptilian dinosaur.
It also established therizinosaurs as aberrant theropods and not a dis- tinct lineage as suggested before. We now know that therizinosaurs were covered extensively in feather-like integument. The segnosaurian dinosaurs: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 4. A reconstruction of Alxasaurus.
They lived earlier on in the age of the dinosaurs. Since their discovery. Either due to scrappy fossils or poorly-formulated theories.. Famous zoologist Darren Naish contributes to this collection with a parade of unusual forms. Our current view of this animal is more-or-less close to this version. A more modern. They were believed by some researchers to be dig- gers. It would be wrong to assume that similar acts did not take place in the age of dinosaurs.
Elia Smaniotto. Annual of the Natural History Museum Rotterdam 8: Without going too much into details. Nothing could be further from the truth. Before assuming that the artist. Moeliker Being so similar to modern birds. ISBN The second Microraptor shows a very angry or scared individual.
Gary W. UBC Press. Willoughby has depicted Microraptor. Her animals are exceptional for looking first and foremost like birds. Emily Willoughby Microraptor Palaeoartist Emily Willoughby is well known for her beautifully detailed renditions of dromaeosaurs. Willoughby considers the animal an omnivore.
In the overleaf picture. The Inner Bird: Anatomy and Evolution. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21 3: Burge Emily Willoughby has here depicted Utahraptor. Emily Willoughby Utahraptors on the Beach Moving from one of the smallest to one of the larg- est dromaeosaurs.
A similar scene. Bantam Books. They look less like reptiles and more like the birds they were related to. Raptor Red. Robert September Martin Pia Schmunk speculates. Schmunk continues his line of speculation by imagining the male pushing the fallen tree to a location where a poten- tial mate can easily find it. From dueling reindeer to hu- man males working out in gymnasiums. The answer. Behavioral Ecology 12 6: These details. Animal Behaviour 69 3: Lanius excubitor.
Piotr and Hromada. Is any mar- riage proposal. Lanuis excubitor. It belongs to a lineage called synapsids. Like many predators liv- ing today. Italian palaeoartist Fabio Manucci has here illustrated Dimetrodon as a lazy.
More familiar mam- malian characteristics such as a erect limbs. It might surprise you. But factors such as the presence of crests only in certain individuals weigh heavily in favor of it being a feature for mating displays. It confuses us only in hindsight. The compara- tively gigantic. At one time. Just what function this crest served is a topic of debate. The pressure of living in specialized environments such as the open sea seem to drive the development of similar fea- tures in unrelated organisms.
Because they were reptiles. This phenomenon is known as convergent evolution. Geunhong Pius Park Clidastes velox This breathtakingly subtle composition was one of the best works we received for the All Your Yesterdays contest.
In Farke. Such depictions still dominate the realm of palaeoart. As a result. PMC Even birds have produced similar forms with pen- guins. With this many independent groups evolving such convergent body plans.
Among mammals. It is a pretty ordinary scene. This discovery led to a revision of the way we looked at mosasaurs. Andrew Allen. Much like mosasaurs.. It shows a mosasaur known as Clidastes.
Based on this growing body of evidence. Esdaile has speculated about tool use in dinosaurs. Esdaile Tool Use in Jinfengopteryx This spectacular artwork addresses one of the most inter- esting debates about dinosaurs: How intelligent were these animals?
Intelligence and tool-making were once seen as exclusive gifts to mankind. Jane Goodall So here is Jinfengopteryx elegans. Other animals were regarded as little more than instinct-driven automata. As time passed. Tool-making also proved to be much more common than thought before.
The Emotional Lives of Animals. I wanted to draw a dinosaur using tools the same way. In his words: This work is also a homage to the s book. The New Dinosaurs featured a flightless. With such features. How could such beasts move. Salem House Publishers. The debate has been long and complex.
Their anatomies are also unusual: The New Dinosaurs: An Alternative Evolution. The New Dinosaurs. While most animals in the book seem severely outdated or erroneous in the light of our contemporary understanding.
These flying reptiles were among the largest species of their group. Albertonykus belongs to one such group. She imagines them much like kiwi birds. Just how these limbs functioned has been a matter of debate. There are the long necked sauropods. Apteryx sp.
Jessica Pilhede Whiskered Albertonykus Even the average person knows that dinosaurs came in a variety of different lineages. One recent theory suggests that they lived like dinosaurian anteaters. But there are also numerous groups of little-known dinosaurs that are just as intriguing as their larger. However this conclusion is not certain and the possibility remains that their arms were used for a completely different purpose.
In this image. Conway has observed Allosaurus skulls and was intrigued by the presence of holes on the top surface. Taking into account the levels of pneumaticity. John Conway Balloon-Headed Allosaurus Celebrated palaeoartist and Irregular Books co-founder John Conway also participates in this collection with a selection of works that were created after the origial All Yesterdays volume.
Conway points out the artificial nature of this debate by showing his Giraffatitan in both postures. A ring of thorn-like spines. There are litar- ally thousands of renditions of this animal. John Conway Giraffatitan brancai at the Mudbaths In a spectacular.
One side suggested that dinosaurs could lay down on their sides like large mammals today. These mud-bathing Giraffatitan look nothing like the stock image of the sideways-viewed. John Conway also uses this artwork to showcase his thoughts on a particular debate about dinosaurian rest- ing postures. In nature. Their necks are sleeved with giant. The jaw-like limbs This artwork is now one of the proudest pieces in this were thought to be crayfish-like arthropods.
Primitive fluke-like vertebrates swim after it ago. The discovery of Cambrian-era fossils in China have revealed that even 1 Whittington. Wonderful life: These unusual organs were first discovered as disarticulated fossils.
Martin Stein. Stephen Jay In this extraordinary artwork. Burgess Shale. New York: John Meszaros imagines that the anomalocarid famil tree may have included filter-feeding representatives as well. North Greenland. Meszaros has for its time. About as big as a cat. This artwork is also distinct in that it depicts the imaginary the Cambrian period.
This artwork does not depict Anomalocaris. Animals that evolved in this period included the Less familiar organisms are also tagging along with Ceti- first ancestors of vertebrates and the great arthropod line.
Taking place long before the age of but completely plausible Ceticaris with a host of commen- the dinosaurs. Nicholas R. Bristle-like integumentary structures at the tail of the horned dinosaur Psittacosaurus. On top of this. Naturwissenschaften German caseids.
Cotylorhynchus executed digitally or with color pencils and gouache on and relatives lived in the Permian period. Beyond pure artistry. Needless to The horn-faced dinosaurs known as ceratopsians had a say.
His artwork. The result looks strikingly alien. Many reconstructions of seen having a perfectly ordinary day as it wades through this animal exaggerate these features. This ani- mal is famous for its jaws. Unlike Knuppe has restored Masiakasaurus as a more convention. Masiakasaurus knopfleri Nanshiungosaurus: Masiakasaurus is an extraordinary meat-eating dinosaur A Mesozoic Moose from the Late Cretaceous period of Madagascar.
Therizinosaurs were bird-like members of the sues and consequently be less prominently visible.
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Even bird-like reconstructions of dinosaurs shy away from extreme crests. Possibly not. Many animals in the past possibly had lived in a different environment? Epidexipteryx Burrows In real life.
Can You Recognize Hesperonychus? Able to form a myriad different crests. Can We know from previous pages that the long-fingered. Most dinosaur artists thoroughly underestimate the visual po- tential offered by feathers. Conventional wisdom teristic muzzle is almost completely obscured by a circular assumes these animals were tree-climbers. Tasty Soil A bird-like dinosaur known as Incisivosaurus is engaging in what at first seems to be an unusual act.
Dinosaurs would not have been much different in their need of mineral supplements. The act of eating soil. Joschua Kn- uppe breaks this tradition by portraying Shuvuuia deserti. Shuvuuia deserti Current reconstructions of bird-like dinosaurs dress them up with bird-like feathers.
It looks like an ordinary bird. Joschua Knuppe speculates on Heterodontosaurus. Projectile Defence No matter how complete. This Struthiomimus is following suit by cleansing its feathers in a similar manner.
Dust Bath A lot of animals. Joschua Knuppe illustrates a dino- saur at play to challenge conventional ideas about dinosaurian predators and prey. Beipiaosaurus was one of the largest dinosaurs preserved with a feathery integument. In this painting. At slightly less than two meters long. Once again. Beipiaosaurus was nowhere as large.
Beipiaosaurus was one of the earliest therizinosaurs.
All Your Yesterdays, our new book
Beipiaosaurus A wary Beipiaosaurus is here seen scanning its surroundings as it feeds on plants. Cretaceous Research.
Stuttgart 2 Coria. Trinisaura is also one of the few dinosaur species known from Antarctica. As we look more into nature. A Sleeping Trinisaura There is a recursive pattern to certain hypotheses in the world of palaeontology. Joschua Knuppe has painted the small ornithopod known as Trinisaura In the beginning of the century. A case to the point is arboreality. Even if their feet were not adapted for perching. To illustrate this point. It is thought that their lives may have been convergent with those of chame- leons.
Biology Review Hesperornis and relatives all became extinct at the end of the age of dinosaurs. Its mouth contained teeth alongside a keratinous beak. With practically no front limbs.
Live-Birthing Hesperornis In this picture. Hesperornis was one of the most ex- traordinary animals in the Mesozoic seas. So far. Live-Birthing Drepanasaur With lizard-like bodies. This may be so because dino- saur and bird embryos depend on their eggshells as a vital calcium reservoir during development.
The possibility of dinosaurs and kin bearing live ofspring has been considered before. The physiological ecol- ogy of reptilian eggs and embryos. One particular trope is the desire Nemicolopterus Nests to show every bone. Caviramus and the Frog This splendidly naturalistic illustration depicts Caviramus.
The constant movement of the large animal could have made this arrangement unlikely. In this artwork. Artist Joschua Knuppe speculates that the nest would be cemented on top of one of the bony nodules covering the back of the animal.
A Climbing Mosasaur Pannoniasaurus is a mosasaur. The hatchlings of Hoatzin birds Opisthocomus hoatzin still retain claws on their hands. As they grew. As they grow the claws disappear and the hands gradually change into wings. This idea. He suggests that the young of Pannoniasaurus may have retained their clawed hands and feet. In Butler. Pannoniasaurus was unique among its relatives because so far.
As we tried to make clear in All Yesterdays look at p.
All Your Yesterdays
We typically have detailed information on the bony anatomy and thus the proportions and basic shape of a given animal, for example; we can infer a lot about its musculature and integument based on what we know about its living relatives; and we should try to incorporate whatever data we have on environments, climates and the local vegetation.
These two problems explain the many terrible illustrations we still see in some mainstream books. At which point does a speculation render itself too extreme? And is it even possible to reach said extreme given the ridiculous soft tissue structures and absurd behaviours present in the modern world? It is, in fact, surprisingly difficult to come up with a speculative piece of palaeoart that is unconditionally ridiculous at least, so long as the basic rules of anatomy, biology and physics are applied, as they are in science-based reconstructions.
Critics and detractors would do well to remember this when criticising speculative palaeoart, especially when the art concerned is clearly labelled — as it is — as an exercise in speculation. Art depicting extinct animals can obviously play the same game. Some of the art included in All Your Yesterdays can be seen in this vein. It is not necessarily offered as a scientific bit of palaeoart, but as a stylized image that features a fossil animal.
On that note, much of the palaeoart of the past is now regarded as woefully wrong. This does not stop them being worthy, and even beautiful, pieces of art. The human experience is rich. We should love what we do; we are passionate, we enjoy thinking about and depicting scenes from the world, from the past, from our lives and from our minds. Art can be driven by science, but it can be divorced from it entirely.
We hope you enjoy the remarkable selection of images we include in All Your Yesterdays. And well done and thank you to everyone that contributed. All Your Yesterdays can be downloaded here at Irregular Books. For previous articles on the All Yesterdays project, and our next one — the Cryptozoologicon — go here…. Vertebrate palaeontology at Lyme Regis: The All Yesterdays Launch Event.PMID Second Edition Updated on the 31st of July, These hauntingly terrifying swans are a favorite of mine, shown here using their wicked skewers to hunt the mysterious fish called "tadpoles.
Dru De Nicola De Nicola. Has All Yesterdays been a triumph? This is a speculative feature never before illustrated in such animals, yet it is not any more or less-likely than a traditional, reptile-headed reconstruction. Moeliker But denning is not its only protection. Here, Alvaro Rozalen is continuing the debate by illustrat- ing Citipati, one of the largest oviraptorosaurs, in the act of crushing a crab which it has caught from a freshwater lake.
Art can be driven by science, but it can be divorced from it entirely.
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