PDF | On Sep 1, , Roberto A. Valdeon and others published Translation and the Cronica del Peru: The Voices of Pedro Cieza de Leon. The Crónica del Perú written by Pedro de Cieza de León (?)1, a chronic1e that describes the conquest and co10nization of Peru by the. Spaniards in. Originally published in Seville, , with title: Parte primera de la chronica del Peru.
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Segunda parte de La crónica del Perú: que trata del señorío de los Incas by: Cieza de León, Pedro de, ; Jiménez de la Espada. Cronica del gran regno del Peru, con la descrittione di tutte le provincie e costumi e riti scritta da Pietro di Cieca di Lione in lingua spagnuola, tradotto nella. Pedro de Cieza's chronicles about the conquest of Peru have been hailed as some of von Hagen (or nine according to Pedro R. León), but, surprisingly, none.
Betanzos married one of the former Inca princesses and lived in Cuzco, compiling data and observations first hand until , when his major treatise on the traditions and history of the Andean Indians, Suma y Narracion de Los Incas, appeared.
He had white hairs, was slender, walked with a staff, and he taught the people with great love, calling them all his sons and daughters.
This man, they say, spoke all of the languages of the provinces better than the natives, and they called him Tonapa or Tarapaca Viracochanpa Chayachicachan or Pacchacan and Bicchhaycamayoc Cunacaycamayoc … He chastised the people with great love by the apotampo, [inn or lodging house], and they listened to him with rapt attention, receiving the stick from his hand, such that in a stick they received what he preached to them, indicating and emphasizing each chapter of the discourse.
This man called Thonapa, they say, journeyed through all the provinces of the Collasuyos, preaching tirelessly.
This Thonapa they say cursed a certain city to be drowned, and today it is called Yamqui Capacocha, the lake, which all the Indians say was anciently a principal city, and now it is a lake.
Another thing they say is that on top of a high hill called Cachapucara there was an idol in the form of a woman, and they say that Tunapa hated this idol, and afterwards he caused fire to come down and burn the hill and the idol, destroying and melting the hill as if it had been wax, and even today there are remnants of that awesome miracle, never before heard of in the world.
They say that Tunapa continued his course by the river Chacamarca until he came to the sea, and from there he crossed the strait to the other sea.
This has been verified by extremely ancient Incas. He was a creator god who came to visit the men he had created, to instruct and organize them.
With white skin and a medium to large build, he wore a white tunic girded at the waist that hung down to his feet. Past his youth, he was slender and had white hair.
When he walked, he carried a staff and a book in his hands, and sometimes he was seen with a crown on his head. He demonstrated supreme authority, yet spoke with love and humility, calling everyone his sons and daughters. Appearing long before the time of the Inca empire, the coming of this Viracocha constituted the single most important tradition of the Andean Indians.
Four Peruvian Versions of the White God Legend
For many days prior to his coming, the sun was darkened and the people suffered tremendous privations from lack of sunlight.
Only after intense praying and supplication was the light restored, after which Viracocha appeared. Everywhere he went in the mountains of Peru, he performed miracles. He lowered the hills and raised up the level places to become mountains. He drew water from rocks, gave life to animals and men, and walked on water.
He healed the sick with only a touch of his hand, and spoke all the diverse languages of the region with equal fluency. Viracocha cursed one city so it was covered by a lake and all the inhabitants drowned.
A hill he cursed, and it was consumed by fire from heaven. He gave commandments to men that they love their neighbor and have charity, and he chastised the people for their wrongdoings.
He gave them a copy of his discourse, written on a stick, then reviewed it with them for emphasis. Traditional Andean cosmology was antithetical to 16th century European beliefs in the struggle between god and the devil, between loyal Christians and the Satan's followers.
Consequently, European concepts of disease and health based on the power of witches, Satan's adherents, to cause harm and cure were alien to pre-Columbian Andean thought. Ironically European concepts of Satan and the supposed powers of witches began to graft themselves onto the world view of Andean peoples. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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Download preview PDF. Madrid: Biblioteca de Autores Espanoles.
Translated by L. Clark Keating. In Biblioteca Peruana, Serie 1, Vol.
Pedro Cieza de León (1518-1554)
III: 9— Lima:  Editores Tecnicos Asociados. Interpretation of the original by Luis Bustios  Galvez. In Biblioteca Peruana, Serie 1,  Vol. Lima: Editores Tecnicos Asociados.
In Los pequenos grandes libros de historia americana. Francisco A. Loayza ed. IB, Lima. Google Scholar Murua, Martin de Historia del origen y geneologia real de los incas. Madrid: Edition of Constantino Bayle .La historia del vino y aguardiente tiene varias fases que analizaremos en este trabajo.
As the two leaders faced off, the young captain Hernando De Soto rode on horseback directly up to Atahualpa to intimidate him. Two new departments announced to begin functioning on 1 August and 1 January have been identified only as dicasteries—Dicastery for the Laity and Life and Dicastery for Promoting Integral Human Development. Download preview PDF. Ethnography, as the presentation of empirical data on human societies and cultures, was pioneered in the biological and cultural branches of anthropology , but it has become popular in the social sciences in general—sociology, communication studies, history—wherever people study ethnic groups, compositions, social welfare characteristics, spirituality, a people's ethnogenesis.
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